An overview of organ transplantation and the moral and ethical principles behind the medical process

Under such a policy, all cadaveric organs would be retrieved regardless of the wishes of the deceased individual or the surviving family; the operative principle here is that dead bodies are a public resource that may be deployed to serve the common goal of saving human life.

And even when it comes to the allocation of organs from deceased donors-organs not given to specific recipients but meant to be given to the most deserving recipient-the problems of just allocation are significant, since many legitimate criteria for being "most deserving" or "most needy" often come into tension with one another.

At present, such research is either speculative or in the early stages of development, and while it may offer a future remedy for those suffering from various forms of organ failure, it does not change the current imbalance between organ supply and organ demand.

The future rights to one's organs would likely command a far lower market price, since most people do not die in such a way that organ retrieval is actually possible. The Canadian Legal Information Institute. Incentives for postmortem organ donation: One must choose explicitly to "opt out" rather than choosing to "opt in.

First, our policies aim to ensure that all deceased donors are truly dead; that there are clear criteria for discerning when death has occurred; that these criteria are grounded in the nature of death itself as a biological phenomenon and yet applicable in light of novel technological capacities to sustain various biological functions even after whole-brain death has occurred; and that the desire to procure organs does not invite us to redefine death in general or hasten the death of particular patients in order to expand the organ supply, or tempt us to procure vital organs from those who are severely debilitated or imminently dying but not yet dead.

Draft guiding principles on human organ transplantation

Jewish law condemns violation of the dead. And it seems irresponsible to allow vague moral considerations about the "commodification of the body" to impede the concrete good of saving lives by potentially expanding the organ supply-especially when there are wealthy people desperate to buy organs and poor people desperate to sell them, an exchange that mutually benefits both parties.

The obligation of doctors and of society to the sick is to do everything permissible to heal them, not everything imaginable. No one can deny the great good that has come from organ transplantation in both lives saved and suffering ameliorated, as well as the great suffering that cannot be ameliorated because of the organ shortage.

No doubt this is in a certain sense true-though as the healthy kidney donor ages, he, too, may suffer kidney failure. Is such a personal sacrifice truly and entirely an act of giving, without psychological strings attached?

A human rights report on trafficking in persons, especially women and children. It is these aspirations that animate the current drive to expand the organ supply. WHO guiding principles on human cell, tissue and organ transplantation.

Additionally, there was no public campaign to endorse social change making this new initiative ethically objectionable[ 79 ]. Patients would appreciate it, e.

Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets

To remove organs sooner improves the likely quality of the organs taken, but leaves us less certain that the deceased donor is irreversibly dead. True, this would dramatically reduce the supplier pool, since most wealthy and middle-class people are unlikely to expand their wealth by selling organs; the poverty of the poor is precisely what makes them such good targets for solicitation.

Enforcement of presumed-consent policy and willingness to donate organs as identified in the European Union Survey: Perhaps the best known philosophical proponent of this view is the 18th-century philosopher Immanuel Kant.

Of course, effects of payment might differ for blood and for kidneys. It would redefine the current patient as dead in order to make his body more useful to others; it would replace the physician's duty to care always for the patient in his care with the ethic of triage-saving whom we can, abandoning the lives we cannot help.Title: Organ transplants: ethical, social and religious issues in a multi-cultural society.

Abstract Recent advances in the fields of organ donation and organ transplant have introduced new hope for the treatment of serious diseases.

However this promise has been accompanied by several issues. Many people believe that organ transplants are a thing of only the present, that they used to not be a prevalent thing. But they’re wrong, it’s been used since at least as far back as BC. We’ve. Taken together, these laws aim to reap the medical benefits of organ transplantation and to encourage individuals to become organ donors, while preserving certain ethical limits against treating the body as property, the dying as dead, and the newly dead as simply natural resources.

Jun 24,  · In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation.

The ethics of allocating human organs for transplantation is a specific application of ethical norms to social practices. The principles involved are essentially the same as those that apply to other areas of human conduct. MEDICAL ISSUES What is organ transplantation? An organ transplant is a surgical operation where a failing or damaged organ in the human body is removed and replaced with a new one.

An organ is a mass of specialized cells and tissues that work together to perform a function in the body. The heart is an example of an organ.

An overview of organ transplantation and the moral and ethical principles behind the medical process
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